Contrast to the coastal areas, temperatures vary widely in the inland desert regions, especially in summer, when it can range from 7° Celsius at night to 43° Celsius during the day. During winter, temperatures in the desert fluctuate less severely but can be as low as 0° Celsius at night and as high as 18° Celsius during the day.

The average annual temperature increases moving southward from the Delta (furthest point north of the Nile River) to the Sudanese border, where temperatures are similar to those of the open deserts to the east and west. In Alexandria which is the situation on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea, the cooler temperatures during the summer have made this city a popular resort for the locals. Throughout the Delta and the northern Nile Valley, there are occasional winter cooler spells accompanied by light frost and although very rare, occasionally even snow. In Aswan, the furthest city in the south, early summer temperatures can be as high as 41° Celsius during the day when the sky is clear and as low as 10° Celsius at night.

In most areas Egypt has fewer than 80 millimeters of precipitation annually. Most of rain falls along the coastlines but even the wettest area in the northern Nile Valley, near Alexandria, receives only about 200 millimeters of precipitation per year. Alexandria has relatively high humidity but sea breeze coming from the Mediterranean Sea help keep the moisture down to a comfortable level. Shortly after moving southward, the amount of precipitation decreases suddenly.

Cairo receives a little more than one centimeter of precipitation each year however; it has been reported that the humidity in Cairo can be as high as 77 % during the summer. During the rest of the year, the humidity is generally very low. The regions south of Cairo receive only traces of rainfall. Some areas will go years without any rain and then experience sudden downpours that result in flash floods.

The Sinai Peninsula receives somewhat more rainfall, around 12 centimeters annually. The desert areas are dotted by numerous wells and oases. Water drainage toward the Mediterranean Sea from the main plateau supplies sufficient moisture to permit some agriculture in the coastal area, particularly near Al Arish.

A unique climate occurrence in Egypt is in the early summer when typically strong wind blows across the country. The winds, known to Europeans as the sirocco and to Egyptians as the khamsin, usually start in April but occasionally come as early as March. The winds form in small but vigorous low-pressure areas in the Isthmus of Suez and sweep across the northern coast of Africa. Since much of Egypt is geographically open and unobstructed, the winds reach high velocities and carry great quantities of sand and dust from the deserts. These sandstorms, often accompanied by winds of up to 140 kilometers per hour, can cause temperatures to rise as much as 20° Celsius in just a few hours. The winds blow intermittently and may continue for days, cause illness in people and animals, damage crops, and occasionally damage houses and infrastructure.

Month

Cairo

Min/Max

Alexandria

Min/Max

Luxor

Min/Max

Aswan

Min/Max

 Hurghada

Air/Water

 Sharm

Air/Water

JAN

09/19° C
47/66° F

09/18° C
49/65° F

05/23° C
42/74° F

08/24° C
46/75° F

24/18° C
75/64° F

24/18° C
75/64° F

FEB

09/21° C
48/69° F

10/19° C
49/67° F

07/25° C
44/78° F

09/26° C
49/79° F

25/18° C
77/64° F

25/18° C
77/64° F

MAR

11/24° C
52/75° F

11/21° C
52/70° F

11/29° C
51/84° F

13/30° C
54/86° F

26/20° C
79/68° F

26/20° C
79/68° F

APR

14/28° C
56/83° F

15/24° C
58/75° F

16/35° C
60/95° F

18/36° C
63/97° F

31/25° C
88/77° F

31/25° C
88/77° F

MAY

17/32° C
63/90° F

17/27° C
62/80° F

021/39° C
69/103° F

021/39° C
71/101° F

35/26° C
95/79° F

35/26° C
95/79° F

JUN

20/35° C
68/95° F

20/28° C
69/83° F

023/41° C
72/107° F

024/42° C
76/108° F

37/28° C
99/82° F

37/28° C
99/82° F

JUL

22/35° C
71/96° F

23/30° C
73/86° F

024/41° C
74/106° F

025/42° C
76/108° F

040/28° C
107/82° F

040/28° C
107/82° F

AUG

22/35° C
71/95° F

23/30° C
73/87° F

024/41° C
74/107° F

025/41° C
76/107° F

042/29° C
108/84° F

042/29° C
108/84° F

SEP

20/23° C
68/89° F

21/30° C
71/85° F

022/39° C
71/101° F

022/40° C
72/103° F

038/27° C
100/81° F

038/27° C
100/81° F

OCT

18/30° C
64/86° F

18/28° C
64/82° F

18/35° C
64/95° F

19/37° C
66/99° F

32/25° C
90/77° F

32/25° C
90/77° F

NOV

12/24° C
54/75° F

15/24° C
59/76° F

12/30° C
54/85° F

15/30° C
58/86° F

26/23° C
79/73° F

26/23° C
79/73° F

DEC

10/21° C
51/69° F

11/20° C
52/69° F

9/25° C
45/76° F

10/21° C
50/69° F

26/19° C
79/66° F

26/19° C
79/66° F